History of Ukraine

History of Ukraine

The earliest ukraine history discovered societies emerged within the Ukrainian territory by the third century B.C. These societies were capable of performing agricultural functions. The earliest state unions were made during the first century B.C. During the first century A.D., tribal slave unions began cultivating lands situated in the Dnieper riverbed. The Dnieper is among the most extensive rivers in Eastern Europe.

The ancient Russ state was established by the Rurikovitch dynasty in the later part of 9th century. Kyiv served as the state’s capital. During the 10th and 11th centuries, Kiev Russ attained remarkable advancements in the aspects of written language, culture and artistry. By the very late part of the 12th century, the state was separated into numerous small territories. Such separation significantly delayed linguistic and educational developments.

The historical developments undergone by other nations contributed to the further improvement of the Ukrainian territory, particularly in the education and culture of the people residing within it. European education customs had immense influences on the formation of the earliest higher school in Ukraine in 1632. The Collegium was specifically established in Kyiv. In 1661, Lviv University was founded.

The academicians in Kyiv were widely respected in Europe. A lot of them have been invited to Zagorsk, Moscow and other Russian scientific centers.

Numerous Ukrainian universities were built and founded in the 1800s. For example, the University in Kharkiv was founded in 1805 while the universities in Kyiv and Odessa were founded in 1834 and 1865, respectively.

The sector of higher education benefited immensely from agricultural, commercial and industrial advancements. Agricultural and technical academic centres eventually emerged. Such centres advocated the conduct of scientific research. Education was passed on using the Russian language.

During the 1920s, it became possible to get educated through Ukrainian language. The mass illiteracy liquidation programme was enacted during the 20th century, and it improved the accessibility and democracy of education.

Ukraine was considered as among the most advanced countries when the Soviet Union was still around. The Ukrainian economy necessitated numerous qualified and skilled specialists for conducting industrial scientific studies. Many Ukrainian scientists contributed immensely to the information technology, welding, air-space technology and several other fields.

The high proficiency of Ukrainian education caught the interest of many students from other countries. Beginning in 1940, related preparations have been made within Ukraine to accommodate foreign students. At present, Ukrainian graduates occupy prestigious posts in international companies that are situated in Latin America, Asia and Africa. A significant number of these graduates have become engineers, medical experts and state officers.

Since 1940 preparation was in progress in Ukraine, and successful The Ukrainian education system attracted the attention of foreign students. Today, the highest positions of leading foreign companies are also held by Ukrainian graduates.

Ukraine’s education system immensely benefited from the resolution of global confrontation and its establishment as an independent country. This can be exemplified by the Ukrainian education system’s close coordination with the academic world.

During the 1990s, remarkable changes were made with regards to Ukraine’s education system. The advancements within the novel marketing interactions paved the way for the emergence of structural developments and improvements in the lessons being taught. The labor market upgraded the previously existing skill standards.

During the 1990s, the country prioritised the fields of law, computer engineering, commerce, financing and management. Aside from developments within the state sector, there were also remarkable changes in the private institutions. English, French, German, Spanish and some other foreign languages became vital components of the curriculum, which established desirable conditions for succeeding in International Language tests.

Ukrainian academic centers actively contribute to the functions performed by the European Association of International Education and other European educational institutions. Ukraine was a signatory of the convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education in Europe (Lisbon, 1997). The Ukrainian Parliament ratified the convention in 1999.  The country pursues the strengthening of the bilateral collaboration among Ukrainian and foreign academic institutions. The universities in Ukraine actively support TEMPUS. The Ukrainian higher education is becoming increasingly popular at present.

Important Dates in history of Ukraine…

Historical changes

By the end of the century, nine Russian governments (guberniy) closely matched the central and eastern portions of present-day Ukraine. These are Kiev, Kharkov, Kherson, Chernigov, Yekaterinoslav, Poltava, Podolia, Volhynia and Taurida. These governments were separated into counties or uyezdi, which were further partitioned into districts or volosti. Ukraine’s western territories formerly belong to Bukovina and Galicia, which were Austrian provinces; and Ung, Ugocsa, Bereg, and Máramaros, which were counties in Hungary.

  • January 1918: The Russian territory Ukraine proclaimed its desire for independence. Ukrainians residing in East Galicia later established their own republic.
  • March 3, 1918: Through the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, the Russians recognised Ukraine’s independence. The Chelm region became Ukrainian territory.
  • 1919: Through the Paris Peace Conference, East Galicia became a protectorate under Poland. Germany and Russia relinquished the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.
  • December 1919: The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian S.S.R.) was founded.
  • March 18, 1921: Through the Riga Treaty, Russia and Poland ended the Russo-Polish War. Ukraine lost the western portion of Volhynia, and it became a part of Poland.
  • 1921: Crimea became an A.S.S.R. under the Russian Soviet Federative Social Republic (Russian S.F.S.R.). Yekaterinoslav and Odessa guberniy absorbed parts of the Taurida guberniya.
  • December 30, 1922: Through the Treaty of Union, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian S.S.R.) became a republic under the newly established Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which had Kharkov as its original capital. It possessed nine guberniy (excluding Crimea), a portion of territory that was seized by Poland, and four counties situated in northern Chernigov.
  • ~1923: Donets guberniya decided to separate from Yekaterinoslav. Bakhmut was its capital.
  • 1924: The Moldavian A.S.S.R. officially separated from Ukraine. It is made up of the Bessarabian territory, which is situated on Dniester River’s left bank.
  • 1925: Ukraine’s territorial structure was changed to produce 53 provinces or okruhas that are separated into districts or raiony.
  • ~1927: The Ukrainian provinces of Shakhty and Taganrog became Russian territories.
  • 1932: Ukraine once again underwent reorganisation. The republic was separated into seven regions (oblastey) that are each partitioned into raiony.
  • 1934: Kiev became the Ukrainian S.S.R.’s new capital.
  • 1935: Lugansk and the region’s capital officially became Voroshilovgrad. The new name originated from Marshal Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov.
  • 1939: Subsequent divisions raised the number of oblastey to 16.
  • September 1939: The Soviet conquests within Galicia got annexed to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
  • June 1940: By virtue of a treaty, Ukrainian S.S.R. acquired Northern Bukovina from Romania. The acquired territory was later called Chernovtsy region.
  • August 2, 1940: The former Russian guberniya Bessarabia got assimilated into the Soviet Union. Moldavian S.S.R. was formed out of the Moldavian A.S.S.R. and some Bessarabian territories. The other parts became Ukrainian territories. Odessa assimilated the Moldavian component while the Bessarabian component became the Izmail region. Annexation was formally done on
  • February 2, 1947.
  • June 29, 1945: Soviet Union seized Carpatho-Ukraine (Subcarpathian Ruthenia) from Czechoslovakia. The acquired territory was called Transcarpathia region and it fell under the jurisdiction of Ukrainian S.S.R.
  • July 16, 1945: Potsdam Conference commenced. The Soviet Union successfully retrieved portions of its original territory that were lost during the Russo-Polish War. The retrieval reached the Curzon Line causing it to be annexed to the Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Byelorussian republics. The recovered territory became the Volyn, Ternopol’, Transcarpathia, Rovno, L’vov, Stanislav and Drogobych regions.
  • February 19, 1954: Crimean Oblast got transferred from Russian Soviet Federative Social Republic towards Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
  • ~1955: Portions of Poltava and Kiev comprised the Cherkassy region. The merger of Odessa and Izmail occurred. Kamenets-Podol’skiy and the region’s capital Proskurov officially became Khmelnitsky.
  • 1958: The name Voroshilovgrad and that of the region’s capital got officially reverted to Lugansk.
  • 1961: Stalino and the region’s capital officially became Donetsk.
  • 1962: Stanislav and the region’s capital officially became Ivano-Frankovsk.
  • ~1963: The merger of L’vov and Drogobych occurred.
  • December 25, 1991: The USSR officially disbanded. The fifteen comprising republics later became separate countries. Most of them unilaterally proclaimed their independence within a few months. Ukrainian city and region names were officially acknowledged.
  • 1992: Crimean Oblast became an autonomous republic.